ISSN : 0302-7074. Aphid forms inhabiting above-ground parts of the apple tree are most common in mid-summer and fall. Here is how to kill woolly aphids using a little bit of dish soap and water. The insects feed on roots, trunks, limbs and shoots, producing galls at the site of the infestation. Woolly Apple Aphid Control upward and downward migration of aphid throughout trees reduced in preliminary experiments with chemical compounds Harold F. Madsen and Stanley C. Hoyt Continual movement of the woolly apple aphid throughout the tree is one of the major difficulties in its control. Woolly Apple Aphid Natural History • Hosts include plantain, apple, hawthorn, mountain ash, cotoneaster, elm ... • No chemical control for underground infestations • For aerial colonies, monitor rootsuckers and pruning cuts between petal fall and 1. st. cover In organic orchards, and orchards minimizing use of broad-spectrum insecticides, control woolly apple aphids by natural enemies. Four insecticide treatments and an untreated check were evaluated with four replications in an RCB design. The current lack of effective insecticides has created a need to test new materials, especially for organic growers. Remove trash and weeds from application zone before application. Treatments for woolly apple aphid are recommended when 10% of the pruning scars are infested with live colonies. 2. 255-273. Some apple varieties, such as Northern Spy, are resistant to this pest. If desired, you can spot treat where the aphids are most abundant using insecticidal soap or neem oil. Wax accumulation is sometimes seen as well, along with the sweet, sticky residue known as honeydew. In addition, plants may become covered with sooty mold, an unsightly black fungus that resembles soot. Woolly aphids appear in early autumn the woolly coating covers the insects and the white coating is usually the first sign of infection. Treatments were applied to the point of drip on 2 Oct using a backpack sprayer, and aphid densities were evaluated at 2 and 7 DAT. PREVENTING WOOLLY APHIDS IN APPLE TREES There are two main actions you can take to reduce the likelihood of a woolly aphid attack. This research was conducted in an apple block composed of four cultivars (‘Gala’, ‘Jonagold’, ‘Golden’, ‘Granny Smith’) at the Tree Fruit Research Extension Center Sunrise Farm near Rock Island, WA. Find more gardening information on Gardening Know How: Keep up to date with all that's happening in and around the garden. Impact of woolly aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) on the growth of potted apple trees. Some clonal stocks including M9 and M26 are quite prone to attack and may host large overwintering colonies, so they are … Varieties were planted in rows and only ‘Jonagold’ were used for this experiment. The three main methods of control for Woolly aphids are organic sprays, systemic chemical sprays and natural predators. Sign up for our newsletter. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. Damage may be recognized by twisted and curled leaves, yellowing foliage, poor plant growth, branch dieback, or the development of cankers and gall on limbs or roots. Chemical control. Search for other works by this author on: © The Author(s) 2018. In the absence of … Though this does not normally affect or damage the plant itself, getting rid of the aphids and their honeydew will help control the sooty mold. This research was supported by industry gifts of pesticide and research funding. It is now distributed throughout the apple growing regions of the world where its importance as a pest varies. Besides apples, other hosts include pear, hawthorn, mountain ash and elm. 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Woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum, WAA) is native to eastern North America but now occurs on apple throughout the world.Young WAA nymphs have purple bodies covered with powdery gray wax. DEFRA/AHDB summarise current methods for chemical treatment of orchards for this pest. Funding for this project was provided in part by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and the B.C. Full text. The average number of aphids per colony was significantly lower at 2 and 7 DAT for both Diazinon and Oil compared with the check (Table 1). Lady beetles, lacewing larva and parasitic wasps are natural predators of the woolly apple aphid, but chemical control may be necessary when aphid populations are larger than natural enemies can control. The most resistant, commonly available rootstock is MM106. Aphids have soft pear-shaped bodies with long legs and antennae and may be green, yellow, brown, red, or black depending on the species and the plants they feed on. A hover fly larva feeding on woolly apple aphids. There is no guarantee that you will catch all the aphid and prevent its return but if you remove potential re-infection it will be relatively easy to manage next year. These pests generally use two hosts: one for overwintering and laying eggs in spring, and one for feeding in summer. This may be due to recent restrictions on certain organophosphates, which were highly toxic to WAA relative to available alternatives. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. Since severe woolly aphid attacks rarely occur, there is little need for woolly aphid pesticide for control. Journal of Economic Entomology 81(4) 1170-1177. Non-pesticide control. Most important natural enemies include Aphelinus mali (Haldemann), lacewing larvae, lady beetles and syrphid fly larvae. Description: Adult aphids are approximately 1.5 mm long and … Record Number : 19951110929 ... chemical control chemical control Subject Category: Techniques, Methodologies and Equipment Over the past decade, WAA densities have increased in Washington apple orchards. Where populations are high, infestations can cause formation of galls on branches which reduce tree vigour especially in young orchards and also can also be a Journal of Economic Entomology, 81(4):1170-1177; 27 ref. Woolly Apple Aphid Management. Eriosoma lanigerum. S. R. Quarrell, R. Corkrey, G. R. Allen, Predictive thresholds for forecasting the compatibility of Forficula auricularia and Aphelinus mali as biological control agents against woolly apple aphid in apple orchards, BioControl, 10.1007/s10526-017-9792-1, 62, 2, (243-256), (2017). A high volume spray of an approved insecticide should be applied in spring or early summer as soon as potentially damaging infestations are detected. The woolly apple aphid (WAA), Erisoma lanigerum has historically been considered an occasional apple pest in Ontario, but is now seen more frequently in orchards. Carbaryl, if used for apple thinning, is also a very effective leafhopper material but the canopy spray technique may not provide adequate coverage for leafhopper control. Encourage aphid predators in the garden. Woolly apple aphid control: Upward and downward migration of aphid throughout trees reduced in preliminary experiments with chemical compounds Department of Entomology, Washington State University, Tree Fruit Research Extension Center,, Wenatchee, WA. If desired, you can spot treat where the aphids are most abundant using insecticidal soap or neem oil. Impact of woolly apple aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) on the growth of potted apple trees. However, woolly aphids, which are green or blue, also appear fuzzy due to the white, waxy material that covers their body. Host plants. Successful control depends on efficient wetting and good distribution of spray. Biological control of woolly apple aphid. Add a few other ingredients to this woolly aphids treatment to make the solution stronger if you have a bad infestation. On small trees with light infestations, it is possible to control woolly aphid by scrubbing the aphid colonies with a stiff-bristled brush. Figure 3. The aerial colonies can be found in several locations o… Data were analyzed using ANOVA and means were separated using Tukey’s HSD (α = 0.05). Soap is a natural bug killer for plants since the solution kills insects without killing the plants. Although woolly aphid populations rarely get large enough to harm most plants, the distorted and curled leaves they cause and leave behind can certainly become unsightly. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. The following guidelines help prevent a buildup of aphids, and reduce the population … When chemical control is deemed necessary, woolly aphid insecticide such as acephate (Orthene) can be used to control these pests. Ministry of Agriculture through programs delivered by the Investment Agriculture Foundation of B.C. There are several aphid control products on the market that are commonly available as either a liquid concentrate or ready-to-use spray. A few species appear waxy or woolly due to the secretion of a waxy white or gray substance over their body surface. Pirimicarb used to be the most commonly used insecticide for apple aphid control, but has now been withdrawn. Control. Research from Washington State showed Movento provided satisfactory summer control of woolly apple aphid. Areopraon lepelleyi is another species of wasp which is a parasitoid of the woolly apple aphid. Elm trees in the vicinity of orchards increase the migration of the aphid to apple trees. Adrian T Marshall, Elizabeth H Beers, Chemical Control of Woolly Apple Aphid, 2017, Arthropod Management Tests, Volume 43, Issue 1, 2018, tsy026, https://doi.org/10.1093/amt/tsy026. 1. Although aphid abundance decreased in the two Venerate treatments at 7 DAT, they were not statistically different from the check. Additional Details. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Much like other types of aphids, these sap-sucking insect pests are small (1/4 inch). Aphelinus mali is a parasite that can completely control aerial colonies. Attacks of woolly aphid tend to be sporadic and it is important to watch for sign of infestation moving onto young shoots in June (see‘Monitoring’) and treat only when necessary. This aphid, native to North America, was identified in the United States in 1842. Woolly apple aphid: effective chemical management. In addition, entomopathogenic nematodes have been used to control root-dwelling populations of E. lanigerum. During the summer months, the move- Each experimental plot consisted of a single tree with three tagged WAA colonies, and plots were spaced at least one tree apart to provide a buffer. Woolly apple aphid Eriosoma lanigerum Order Hemiptera, Family Aphididae; aphids or plant lice Native pest Host plants: Apple is preferred, but elm, hawthorn, mountainash, and pear are also susceptible. A soil wetting agent was added to each chemical to improve soil saturation and penetration. Pest description and crop damage Adult woolly apple aphids are reddish to purple and are completely covered with a thick, woolly white wax. Weber DC, Brown MW, 1988. This research was conducted in an apple block composed of four cultivars (‘Gala’, ‘Jonagold’, ‘Golden’, ‘Granny Smith’) at the Tree Fruit Research Extension Center Sunrise Farm near Rock Island, WA. This is best done in spring or early summer before an extensive population has built up. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (, Evaluation of Best Use Practices for Spear-T in Season-Long Control Programs for Spotted-Wing Drosophila Adults in Georgia Blueberries, 2020, Evaluations of Insecticide Performance for Control of Pecan Weevil and Hickory Shuckworm, 2019, Evaluations of Insecticide Performance for Control of Alfalfa Weevil and Aphids, 2020, Efficacy of Soil and Foliar Applied Registered and Experimental Materials on Green Peach Aphid and Tobacco Flea Beetle, Cranberry Toad Bug Control on Cranberries, 2016–2017, About the Entomological Society of America, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Copyright © 2020 Entomological Society of America. Biological control of woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann), during transition to integrated fruit production for pipfruit in Central Otago, New Zealand. 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